The individual child’s development rate often differs widely from the average but it is still be quite normal. Once you complete this assignment, post or bring it in person to AMREF Training Centre. There is a bag of pus under the skin; This page was last modified on 27 February 2008, at 22:30. We call this cooperative play. The mother needs to be taught the proper attachment of the baby to the breast. A child enjoys recognition by his or her parents. Physical plays include: running, jumping, climbing, and swimming. The most common problems that arise include: Let us discuss each of these problems in detail starting with breast engorgement. Place warm cloths or towels, soaked in warm water, on the breast to relieve the pain and support the breast. It is fun to play together. One of the most important duties at an antenatal clinic is to find out which mothers are likely to develop cephalo-pelvic disproportion and make sure that they deliver their babies in the hospital. Activity (muscle tone). Give five (5) reasons why a general examination of a pregnant woman is important: 7. The parents of a 4-year-old are concerned that their child is not on target with developmental activities. Is it cephalic (the head) or is it breech (the bottom) presentation? 5 Steps to Writing a (kick ass) Nursing Care Plan, Dear Other Guys, Stop Scamming Nursing Students, The S.O.C.K. The parents must not unnecessarily limit the child’s independence and exploration by overprotection and over anxiety. During this period the growth rate is greater than normal. Imaginative play: The child can dress up and pretend to be an adult whom he knows, or pretend to be a driver driving a car. Have a rest before you do the attached assignment. Coordination and fine motor skills improve; Preparing to go to school. History taking: History taking means asking questions about when the mother had her last menstrual period, the past medical history and past obstetric history. With a poor concept of time you have to be careful of causing anxiety in the hospital by preparing them for a procedure too far in advance. Tooth eruption is an important part of growth. When the child stops moving, note the weight quickly, reading to the nearest 10gm in infants and 100 gm in children. The baby is exclusively breastfed within the first hour of delivery. To review research on kangaroo care with implications for growth and development in preterm infants. Can you recall how we defined development? Is Ouma’s growth adequate? • Look for oedema: Examine the legs of every pregnant mother when she comes to the antenatal clinic and test for pitting oedema. 3-5 years ; Can communicate their needs and become more social. To count the fetal heart, you need a clock or watch with a second hand ticker. Then, looking at the questions or cue-words in the question and cue column only, say aloud, in your own words, the answers to the questions, facts, or ideas indicated by the cue-words. To start with, note: the top line represents the average growth line of healthy boys and the bottom line is the 3rd percentile for girls (the lower limit of normal weight-for-age of healthy girls). What services do you think you should offer her? Using this information, plot Ouma’s growth on a graph paper, squared paper or actual growth chart of child health card. Physical development. Asphyxia is the commonest cause of deaths and long-term disabilities in babies. A nurse discharges a preschool-aged client from the hospital and walks the client and family out to their car. Interpretation simply means determining whether the child is growing appropriately or not. Oedema may be due to one of the following conditions: Severe oedema may be all over the body and not just in the legs. Chapter 15: An Overview of Growth, Development, and Nutrition Elsevier items and derived items 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. It means the child is not growing and is a sign of disease, especially malnutrition. He needs full emotional support. During antenatal care, the following services are given to pregnant mothers: Registration: A record of the mother's name, age, address and next of kin is made. Authority List 4 problems below. Growth Monitoring The parents should not do anything that the children can do for themselves. ____________________________________________________________. When a person has anaemia, these places become very pale. The head circumference is measured by encircling the head with an unstretchable tape measure, or a piece of string in the absence of a tape measure. Development proceeds from theHead downward This principle describes the direction of growth and development. Postnatal care is the service given to the mother and the baby in the first six weeks after delivery. As illustrated at the bottom right hand corner of the growth chart in Figure 5.5, you should record important events that affect the child’s growth above the curve in the Growth Chart. Antenatal care is the health service given to a pregnant mother from the time she recognizes the pregnancy until the onset of labour to keep her and her baby healthy. You should also encourage the mother to give the child food containing enough calories, protein, vitamins and minerals. It is common for the mother to have a slight fever at this time, but it will last only one or two days. Infants develop control of the head and face movements at first two months. To measure the height, a bare foot child stands with the feet together. The individual child’s development is normal if the rate of development is constant and the developmental pattern is within the normal range. In this unit we have described the normal growth and development of children. It should take you less than 5 minutes. GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT. In primigravida, or a first pregnancy, the nipple and areola (the skin around the nipple) become darker. Remember to refer the mother to the health centre if there is no improvement after two days. Outline 4 factors that promote development of a child. Next let us discuss development. Hung the scale securely with the dial of the scale at your eye level for correct reading. Does the baby move? Within the first 3-4 days, a term newborn loses 5-10 % of the birth weight. However, in multipara and in most primigravidae, the head remains high and above the pelvis until labour pains start. This helps us to identify the areas that have high maternal deaths, neonatal deaths and infant deaths and to follow-up the patient. Care is taken not to pull the tape or string too tightly. The past obstetric history gives you information about past pregnancies and deliveries and any difficulties a mother has experienced. She is more likely to have a malpresentation or postpartum haemorrhage (bleeding after delivery). If a pregnant mother has no weight gain or has very little weight gain it may be due to poor feeding during pregnancy or it may be due to some disease.