Authority Early leadership theory centered on describing the qualities or traits of leaders and has been commonly referred to as. A brief review of bureaucracy theory, systems theory, and chaos theory can provide the reader with insight into the value of using organizational theory to understand management processes within today’s dynamic, complex health care organizations. We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. 3. • Ignores subordinates’ ideas or suggestions Informal leadership is exercised by the person who has no official or appointed authority to act, but is able to persuade and influence others. People are led, whereas activities and things are managed. As a leader and manager, the nurse will coordinate many aspects of care delivery. Following the increasing recognition that all employees need to be leaders at some level, healthcare organisations are now shifting a relentless focus onto improving and investing in strong and effective leadership within the services they provide. Organizational chart 4. Legal and ethical issues are a critical component of nursing management, although it is not within the scope of this chapter to discuss these issues. Sources of coercive power include withheld pay increases, undesired assignments, verbal and written warnings, and termination. The systems theory views the organization as a set of interdependent parts that together form a whole (Thompson, 1967). Staff directly involved in the challenges presented by patient care often can suggest the most workable, practical solutions. • Communicates effectively, and provides regular feedback Chaos theory says that variation is a normal part of managing health care systems. • Understand the needs of external customers (patients, families, physicians, referring facilities) and internal customers (staff, administrators, executives, and other departments). Although Nancy thinks to herself, “I know what the RNs do around here; I’d like to jump right in without attending orientation,” she readily accepts the assignment. Leaders in nursing management have added two more functions to this list and now recognize five major management functions (Figure 16-1) as necessary for the management of nursing organizations: (1) planning, (2) organizing, (3) staffing, (4) directing, and (5) controlling (Marquis and Huston, 2012). • Successful with employees with little education or training Coaching and counseling the person and setting clear expectations may be required. • Create and sustain trust between and among managers and staff. Today’s complex health care environment requires that every nurse—regardless of his or her role or setting—provide leadership to advance excellence in nursing practice and patient care. Open systems suggest that the organization is affected not only by internal changes among any of its parts, but also external environmental forces that will have a direct influence on the organization and vice versa—the internal forces will affect the external environment. Studies have reported that nurse managers who demonstrate more transformational leadership characteristics achieve higher levels of staff satisfaction and work group effectiveness (Casida and Parker, 2011; Failla and Stichler, 2008; Raup, 2008). Leadership and Management Defined and Distinguished, It is important to note that leaders may not have formal authority granted by the organization but are still able to influence others. Open systems suggest that the organization is affected not only by internal changes among any of its parts, but also external environmental forces that will have a direct influence on the organization and vice versa—the internal forces will affect the external environment. Consider, The chaos theory is a more recently developed organizational theory that attempts to account for the complexity and randomness in organizations. During nursing school, students are often more concerned with developing clinical knowledge and skills and are less concerned with management and leadership skills. What type of team-building skills will help Nancy as she learns to work with the interprofessional team and coordinate the patient’s plan of care with a diverse group of health professionals? Chapter 16 Nursing Leadership and Management Barbara Cherry, DNSc, MBA, RN, NEA-BC Learning Outcomes After studying this chapter, the reader will be able to: 1. • Clearly communicate the goals and work expectations to all staff members. The following sections provide a brief description of key leadership theories. In addition to providing safe, evidence-based, high-quality clinical care, the challenges for RNs today are to manage nursing units that are constantly admitting and discharging higher-acuity patients, motivate and coordinate a variety of diverse health professionals and nonprofessionals, embrace change to develop work environments that are safer and more conducive to professional nursing practice, and manage limited resources and shrinking budgets. • Accept the realities of complex health care systems, which are under pressure to improve patient safety and quality while cutting costs. Upon hearing the word "leader," you might automatically think of someone who manages a large team, or someone at the top who calls all the shots. Trait theories also have failed to recognize the possibility that leadership traits can be learned and developed through experience. Clearly communicate the goals and work expectations to all staff members. Three prevalent management behavior styles were identified by Lewin (1951) and White and Lippit (1960): authoritarian, democratic, and laissez-faire.